NAMES Job applications with white names like "Greg" received 50% more responses than those with black names like "Jamal". People like the letters that are in their names the best, indicating that people feel pride in their name. "people with K names donated 4 percent to all disasters before Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005, but 10 percent of all Katrina donations came from K-named people, a 150 percent increase" People with names near the end of the alphabet, to compensate for being called on last, apply earlier to things like job postings on average. Lawyers with 'fluent' (easy to pronounce and spell) names do better than those with tricky names. Newly-public companies do better when their name is easy to pronounce. The 10 most fluently named companies rose 11% in their first week; the 10 trickiest rose just 4%. Those with pronounceable tickers rose 15%, compared to 7% for unpronouncable ones. "a 1979 study found that thirty-eight of the top two hundred U.S. brand names began with the dominant sounds K or C, and that a whopping ninety-three of them contained the K sound somewhere in their names." LABELS People estimated the cost of shipping South-to-North as higher than the other way around because it seemed uphill. "A second group of people were more willing to drive to a store located five miles south of the city center rather than a practically identical store five miles north of the city center, again because reaching the northerly store seemed to demand more effort than did reaching the southerly store" Russians able to pick a dark blue square from among light blue ones more quickly. The effect disappears when their verbal cognition is tied up with another task. A face actually looks darker when drawn with thicker lips and a broader nose. People focused more on the good aspects of a young girl's academic performance in a video when told her parents were educated professionals; vice-versa when told they were unskilled workers. People 'prefer' words where they type more letters with their dominant hand. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson did a study in '64 where they told teachers that a randomly-chosen selexion of pupils were about to 'bloom' in the coming year. At the end of the year, this group scored 10-15 points higher on IQ tests. "a simple label could elevate a childÂ’s IQ score". "A bridge is masculine to Spanish-speakers and feminine to German-speakers, so in one experiment Spanish-speakers described bridges as big, dangerous, strong, and sturdy, while German-speakers described bridges as beautiful, elegant, pretty, and fragile" Groups of subjects shown a video of two cars colliding estimated higher speeds, and were more likely to misremember that there was broken glass, if asked about how the cars "smashed into" each other than if asked about how they "contacted" each other. Ingenious study showed that people who thought the had a facial scar painted on interacted more awkwardly, and thought they were being judged, even if the scar was surreptitiously removed. Think about how mental illnesses might be self-fulfilling labels like this. SYMBOLS People primed with the Apple logo found to be more creative. People shown a naked lightbulb coming on more likely to solve a problem that required a flash of insight. People shown a swastika judge more harshly. These priming effects can occur even when we're not consciously aware of the thing and it happens for less than a second. The sight of money can prime us too. One study found it made people more independent, less willing to ask for help, or to give help. Interestingly, it makes us feel social rejexion 50% less acutely. In Americans with strong associations to the US flag, priming them with it made them more accepting of Arabs and Muslims, indicating that it triggers tolerance and acceptance. But during wartime, where it gets anchored to violence, it makes people more aggressive. A study showing the Israeli flag purely subliminally actually changed people's voting preferences. EFFECTS OF OTHER PEOPLE Crime went down 17% when pictures of eyes were put up People perform better at skill-based things when others are the cheering them on. Call it the 'social facilitation effect'. However, if the task is something that does to come naturally to us, we get inhibited. People who are good at pool do better when watched; bad players do worse when watched. Straight male chess players take more risks when their opponent is a hot girl. Skateboarders do riskier tricks in front of hot girls. Strippers earn more during their fertile times. Where white people have been murdered, "stereotypically black men tended to receive a death sentence in 58 percent of all cases, black men who did not look stereotypically black received a death sentence in only 24 percent of all cases" People in a shooting gallery will judge a figure to be a threat more often if they're black or Arab than if they're white. Oxytocin makes us more trusting of familiar people, but less so of out-groupers. People tolerate more pain when thinking of loved ones. People much more well-behaved when they can see themselves in a mirror. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Chinese subjects focused more on backgrounds, or on object-in-context, whereas Americans focused just on the focal object. Asians judged the emotions of someone in a picture differently depending on the emotions of other people in the background of the same picture. People from collectivist cultures are more likely to conform with the judgement of others in a lab test, even when it is wrong. Asians draw in more background detail when asked to replicate a picture. One theory is that places with a lot of infexious diseases develop collectivist attitudes to avoid contact with outside groups that might infect them. East Asians were more likely to explain someone breaking a red light as beings in an emergency (situational explanation), while Americans explained it as being an irresponsible guy (trait-based explanation). People primed with a yin-yang symbol invested less in rising stocks, and expected that sunny weather would turn to rain more quickly. COLOR Pink placates, makes people more passive, more compassionate, less aggressive, weaker Blue lights caused drops in public crime and littering People are more impatient waiting for red or yellow webpages to load, making them like the sites less. Red is sexy. "students attained lower test scores when they were exposed to the color red, rather than black, green, gray, or white" Red makes us more vigilant, so better for proofreading. Fighters wearing red win 55% of fights at the Olympics. Taekwondo judges gave more points to the guy wearing red than blue, even when the video was digitally altered to swop the colour. Teams wearing black get penalized more. ENVIRONMENTS Overcrowding makes people less friendly. Being lightly brushed in an aisle makes people likely to leave the shop. Noisy environments hamper children's progress. Natural environments make children exposed to psychosocial stressors better able to cope with them. The easier to read fonts-and-colors are, the less likely people are to really think through what's written. Black Helvetica on a white background is good if you want people not to think. The cognitive friction in reading obscure fonts makes people judge morally ambiguous things more harshly. People behave more dishonestly in dimly-lit places. White people surveyed in Chinatown displayed more Asiatic thought-patterns. TEMPERATURE People are more likely to be aggressive in hot weather. Hornier when physiologically aroused. Testosterone rises about 30% in response to the cold. Actual warmth makes us judge people as 'warm'. Cold makes us feel lonely. The insula in the brain responds to both cold and social isolation. "When the researchers analyzed the results, they found that the positive ions made the participants more tense and tired, and less sociable and happy." People's short-term better was better on gloomy days. "The researchers explained that gloomy weather hampers our mood, which in turn makes us think more deeply and clearly." Stock traders were more bullish and reckless on sunny days.