Boyd Eaton wrote 'Paleolithic Nutrition' in 1985 in The New England Journal of Medicine

DNA evidence shows that our genome has changed less than 0.02% in 40,000 years

Macronutrient ratio

55-60% of calories from animals

19-35% protein, 22-40% carbs, 28-47% fat

Rules Food choices Practicalities

Mail-order specialty oils

The deciding factors in oils are omega-3:6 ratio and resistance to oxidizing under heat

Flaxseed oil has 4 times as much omega-3 as -6

Canola oil has a a 3:6 ratio of 1:2

Using somthing like flaxseed oil as a rub improves the omega oil ratio

Irish beef, free-range chicken. Turkey is very lean and cheap

Lean pork tenderloin is very lean

The key to cooking game meat is to do it slowly with low heat. Broil it or use a little water in a wok. Rub it down first

Overnight marinading of game meat reduces 'gamey' taste

When choosing fish, you want to avoid mercury, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls

Davidson et al in JAMA found that people in the Seychelles with 20X the US levels of mercury had no ill-effects

Avoid fish from inland lakes and rivers in industrialized countries.

Eat mainly smaller, nonpredatory fish. Eat big predators only occasionally.

The other key with fish is freshness. Stay away from smelly fish. Fresh fish has bright red gills.

Eggs: High heat oxidizes cholesterol

Vegetables stay fresh longer if you keep them in ziploc bags in the fridge

Lemon crystals as a substitute for salt

Spicy foods can increase intestinal permeability, especially if you havbe an autoimmune problem (Dr Jensen-Jarolim)

Characteristics of hunter-gatherer diets

1. High in proteiny meat

2. Few high-carb foods

3. High fiber. (veg has 8 times more than whole grains. Low fiber > colon cancer, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel, varicose veins, kidney stones, deep vein thromosis)

4. Nearly equal omega-3 and omega-6, more unsaturated than saturated fats. (Game meat has little saturated fat. The fat in grains is 22:1 omega-6:3; when cattle are fed this grain, they take on that ratio)

5. High potassium:sodium ratio. (All paleo foods - veg, fruit, meat, fish, nuts, seeds - contain 5+ times more K than Na.)

6. Net alkaline load

7. Lots of phytochemicals

Acid-base balance

"Everything you eat eventually reports to the kidney as either an acid or an alkaline base"

Anthony Sebastian et al found that potassium bicarbonate reduced calcium loss and increased bone mass - New England Journal of Medicine

Lawrence Appel (in the same journal) found that diets with lots of fruit and veg reduced urinary calcium loss

Cereals, dairy, legumes, meat, fish and eggs produce a net acidic load. Hard cheeses are by far the worst.

Net acid load leads to muscle-loss associated with aging

Linked to stroke

Cordain's team showed that a low-salt diet decreased severity of exercise-induced asthma

The chloride in salt yields an acidic load

Salt

Linked to hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, kidney stones, asthma, even some cancers

Also linked to insomnia

The chloride in salt yields an acidic load

Protein

People can only handle 200-300 grams a day before toxicity sets in

Digestion of protein has 2.5 the thermogenic effect of fat or carbohydrate

Dauncey et al found that over 24 hours, a high-protein diet resulted in 12% more energy expended than an isocaloric high-carb diet

Most satiating macronutrient, according to research by Porrini.

Study by Bareling et al found that people given a high-protein lunch ate a smaller dinner than people given an isocaloric high-carb lunch. Similar findings by Stubbs et al.

Bernard Wolfe at the University of Western Ontario found that high-protein diets were superior to high-carb, low-fat diets for improving HDL, LDL and triglycerides.

The kidneys easily adapt to increased protein intake

The best source is lean meat and fish - superior to eggs or anything else

Eating proteiny meat increases insulin sensitivity

Fats

Monounsaturated fats prevent cholesterol from oxidizing. The lower total, but not HDL, cholesterol

The Lyon Diet Heart Study compared head-to-head a low-fat (30% fat) diet recommended by the American Heart Foundation with a 35% fat Mediterranean diet high in omega-3. The study involved 600 people who had survived a heart attack. The Mediterranean group's chances of dying from a second heart attack were 76% lower!

Carbohydrates

High-glycemic carbs elevate cicrculating uric acid.

Homocysteine

High levels of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 lower homocysteine

A high-protein diet lowers it too

Vitamin D

Take cod liver oil if you can't get enough sunlight

The 40,000BC model

1. Archaological evidence

2. Modern hunter-gatherers

3. Chimpanzees

4. Nutrients in wild plants and animals

Expensive tissue hypothesis: we shrunk our bellies, from the big bellies of herbivorous monkeys, in order to grow our brains. This happened about 2.5 million years ago. These smaller bellies got more concentrated energy from meat.

By using tools, homonids could crack open skulls and bones of scavenged carcasses to get at DHA-rich marrow and brain, so we developed our large brains by eating DHA.

Mike Richards of Oxford studied skeleteons from England 12,000 years ago (i.e. the Ice Age) and concluded they were almost as carnivorous as wolves.

We were large game hunters. Little things like rabbits contain more protein, less fat. Big things like antelope contain higher levels of fat.

As soon as people farm grains, the fossil record shows they get shorter. In Turkey and Greece, pre-agricultural male skeletons average 5'9"; farmers average 5'3". More childhood mortality appears, dental cavities, osteoporosis, rickets, vitamin- and mineral-deficiency diseases like beriberi and anaemia

Anti-nutrients

Grains contain pyroxidine glucosides, which impair the body's ability to absorb pyroxidine (vitamin B6)

Phytates bind iron, copper, zinc and calcium. Zinc bioavailability from meat is four times that from grains.

Phytate can cause calcium deficiency. This is aggravated by a low Ca:P ratio and by acidity

Most foods are broken down by the small intestine into their constituent amino acids. Lectins are different; they attach to the cells of the small intestine. This increases intestinal permeability and allow bacteria into the blood. Once inside, lectons interfere with the immune signalling so that the things that pass through the leaky gut are not attacked.

In autoimmune diseases, the tissue attacked by the immune system has a molecular similarity to the allergen. When the immune system attacks the allergen, it also attacks the body. The immune cells themselves also are isomorphic.

Canning

Removes 99% of retinol, 97% of B1, 86% B2, 45% of B3, 59% of B6. It also oxidises cholesterol.

Psychological

Insulin

Lower insulin not just by low-glycemic foods and training, but with omega-3, fiber and protein

Fiber slows absorption, evening out blood glucose.

Heart disease

High glycemic foods lower HDL and raise triglycerides and small-dense LDL

High carbohydrate diets appear to lower LDL and raise HDL, but this blots out the fact that they raise small-dense LDL (and triglycerides too)

Cancer

Insulin raises IGF-1 and decreases its binding protein IGFBP-3

Strong correlation of high IGF-1 & low IGFBP-3 with colorectal, breast and prostate cancers

In animal models, injecting IGF-1 increases cancer rates; injecting IGFBP-3 decreases it

Myopia

The excessive growth caused by high IGF-1 & low IGFBP-3 may also deform the eyeball leading to myopia

Phytochemicals

Crohn's disease Skin cancer Hunter-gatherer training