਀㰀℀䐀伀䌀吀夀倀䔀 栀琀洀氀㸀 ਀㰀栀攀愀搀㸀 ਀㰀氀椀渀欀 爀攀氀㴀∀猀琀礀氀攀猀栀攀攀琀∀ 琀礀瀀攀㴀∀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀∀ 栀爀攀昀㴀∀⼀挀礀戀攀爀瀀甀渀欀⸀挀猀猀∀㸀 Notes on 'The Philosopy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy'਀㰀⼀猀琀礀氀攀㸀 ਀㰀戀漀搀礀㸀 ਀㰀搀椀瘀 椀搀㴀∀挀漀渀琀攀渀琀开瘀椀攀眀∀㸀
਀㰀猀琀爀漀渀最㸀匀倀䔀䌀䤀䘀䤀䌀 䴀䔀吀䠀伀䐀匀㰀⼀猀琀爀漀渀最㸀 ਀ᰀ圠栀愀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀渀Ⰰ 椀猀 椀琀 琀漀 戀攀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 攀搀甀挀愀琀攀搀 嬀愀猀 愀 瀀栀椀氀漀猀漀瀀栀攀爀崀㼀 吀漀 氀攀愀爀渀 栀漀眀 琀漀 愀瀀瀀氀礀 渀愀琀甀爀愀氀 瀀爀攀挀漀渀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀猀 嬀椀⸀攀⸀Ⰰ 挀漀洀洀漀渀 猀攀渀猀攀崀 琀漀 瀀愀爀琀椀挀甀氀愀爀 挀愀猀攀猀ᴀ ਀ᰀ吠栀攀 眀椀猀搀漀洀 漀昀 琀栀攀 攀渀氀椀最栀琀攀渀攀搀 匀琀漀椀挀 猀愀最攀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 瀀爀椀洀愀爀椀氀礀 椀渀 栀椀猀 甀渀眀愀瘀攀爀椀渀最 洀椀渀搀昀甀氀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 洀漀洀攀渀琀ⴀ琀漀ⴀ洀漀洀攀渀琀 愀琀琀攀渀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 愀挀琀猀 漀昀 栀椀猀 眀椀氀氀 愀渀搀 琀漀 栀椀猀 昀愀挀甀氀琀礀 漀昀 樀甀搀最攀洀攀渀琀⸀ 䔀洀漀琀椀漀渀愀氀 搀椀猀琀甀爀戀愀渀挀攀 椀猀 琀栀攀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 漀昀 洀椀渀搀氀攀猀猀氀礀 戀攀挀漀洀椀渀最 愀戀猀漀爀戀攀搀 椀渀 攀砀琀攀爀渀愀氀 攀瘀攀渀琀猀Ⰰ戀攀椀渀最 漀瘀攀爀氀礀 愀琀琀愀挀栀攀搀 琀漀 猀攀渀猀漀爀礀 瀀氀攀愀猀甀爀攀Ⰰ 眀攀愀氀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀爀愀椀猀攀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀猀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 漀瘀攀爀氀礀 愀渀砀椀漀甀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 瀀愀椀渀Ⰰ 瀀漀瘀攀爀琀礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 挀爀椀琀椀挀椀猀洀⸀ᴀ [Compare Chapter 5 of of Guide To The Boddhisattva's Way of Life]਀ Reminding ourselves that our judgements, our lusts and horrors, are subjective opinions and not facts, is central to both Stoicism and CBT. A depressed person thinks the world is horrible; they need to remind themselves that the world is not horrible, but rather they are judging it to be horrible.਀ Before Freud and psychoanalysis, there was something called 'rational psychotherapy' which was on the right track in thinking that erroneous ideas were the problem. When Freud presented psychoanalysis in 1907, it met resistance from people who believed in “the more conventional techniques of persuasion and suggestion”. This school was led by Dubois, who “explicitly recognized Stoicism as the precursor to modern rational psychotherapy”.਀ Dubois: “The following lines written by Seneca, seem to be drawn from a modern treatise on psychotherapy: “Beware of aggravating your troubles yourself and of making your position worse by your complaints. Grief is light when opinion does not exaggerate it; and if one encourages one’s self by saying, ‘This is nothing,’ or, at least, ‘This is slight; let us try to endure it, for it will end,’ one makes one’s grief slight by reason of believing it such.” And, further: “One is only unfortunate inproportion as one believes one’s self so.””਀ Dubois etc. talk about “ethics” and “morality” in a different sense from the usual, much more resembling the Pali sīla.਀ Robertson on Dubois: “The work of the psychotherapist centres on motivating the client, educating him about the effect of mind upon body, and teaching him to adopt remedial 'philosophical' attitudes. Dubois wrote, “by rational education of ourselves we modify our ideas and our sentiments and we make our temperament of a noble character””਀ Use patience and acceptance instead of worrying.਀ Understand that people are determined by their karma/beliefs/reality-tunnels/whatever name you choose. This makes us more understanding of their faults, and also less tolerant of our own weaknesses, because we see how they will weaken us.਀ᰀ䴠愀爀挀甀猀 䄀甀爀攀氀椀甀猀 爀攀洀椀渀搀猀 栀椀洀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ ✀倀爀愀挀琀椀挀攀 爀攀愀氀氀礀 栀攀愀爀椀渀最 眀栀愀琀 瀀攀漀瀀氀攀 猀愀礀⸀ 䐀漀 礀漀甀爀 戀攀猀琀 琀漀 最攀琀 椀渀猀椀搀攀 琀栀攀椀爀 洀椀渀搀猀ᴀ✠ ⠀㰀攀洀㸀䴀攀搀椀琀愀琀椀漀渀猀㰀⼀攀洀㸀Ⰰ 㘀⸀㔀㌀⤀⸀ᴀ Marcus Aurelius: “When people injure you, ask yourself what good or harm they thought would come of it. If you understand that, you’ll feel sympathy rather than outrage or anger. Your sense of good and evil may be the same as theirs, or near it, in which case you have to excuse them. Or your sense of good and evil may differ from theirs. In which case they’re misguided and deserve your compassion. Is that so hard?” [Meditations, 7.26] Compare the chapter on anger in Feeling Good, where David Burns says to contemplate that the people we are angry at were acting fairly by their idea of fairness.਀ Dubois and his contemporary hypnotists/mesmerists thought bad autosuggestions contributed to problems. Robertson says the Stoics called this phantasia, though the description of phantasia sems more like automatic visual thoughts.਀ “Strikingly, Coué wrote, 'Pythagoras and Aristotle taught autosuggestion'”਀ Coué: “Even more definite is the doctrine of Aristotle, which taught that “a vivid imagination compels the body to obey it, for it is a natural principle of movement. Imagination, indeed, governs all of the forces of sensibility, while the latter, in its turn, controls the beating of the heart, and through it sets in motion all vital functions; thus the entire organism may be rapidly modified”਀ “Even the Stoics did not depend solely upon the abstract power of reason.” We gotta use vigorous empowering thoughts as well.਀ Baudouin & Lestchinsky wrote The Inner Discipline in 1924, combining Couéism and Dubois' rational methods. They devoted a whole chapter to the influence of Stoicism. They recognized that all the classical schools of philosophy were relevant to modern pscyhotherapy, but said the Stoics did the best job, partly because of the emphasis on continual training and discipline. “As such, Baudouin undoubtedly provides the best example to date of an attempt to assimilate Stoic literature within modern “rational” psychotherapy, itself a close precursor of CBT.....I believe Baudouin has surpassed Beck and Ellis in his grasp of Stoicism’s relevance for psychotherapy”. Robertson thinks that Ellis&Beck tipped their hat to the Stoics for getting that thoughts create feelings, but not for the more central Stoic principle (the one that launches the Enchiridion) that we need to control our minds and let the outer world be.਀ Baudouin & Lestchinsky: “Thus, for the philosophers of the Stoic school, an understanding of universal determinism, a recognition of the inexorable interlacement of causes and effects, was one of the first premises of wisdom.” [Compare the buddhist teaching that everything is a dependent-arising.] Determinism teaches us that many things are not in our control. It teaches us to be accepting of karma. Albert Einstein said here that the belief in determinism was to him, "a continual consolation in the face of life’s hardships, my own and others’, and an unfailing well-spring of tolerance."਀ The class of things outside our control includes the past events of our lives.਀ Robertson makes the good point that psychoanalysis is a fleeting fad of little influence when compared to the therapeutic school of Socrates.਀ After Socrates' death, 10 of his disciples founded 10 schools. One of these was the Cynics. Zeno of Citium joined the Cynics. Like the way all Christian sects think they're the ones who really “get” Jesus, all these sects thought they represent Socrates true teachings. Zeno and his mates met in a collonade and the word 'Stoic' comes from the Greek for 'collonade'. These schools were generally sympathetic to each other.਀ Martial metaphors are used a lot in Stoicism. [Sidenote: the people interested in gamifying mental health should take heart from this.]਀ Wisdom was understood by the Classical Greeks as peace of mind. Robertson correctly points out that the distinct categories “'spiritual', 'philosophical', and 'therapeutic'” were “alien to ancient philosophy”.਀ Epictetus wrote: “Death, for instance, is nothing terrible, or else it would have appeared so to Socrates too. But the terror lies in our own judgements about death, that death is terrible” This is the same point of the Buddhists when they say that attributes appear to be in things, but actually are not so (like Tsongkhapa's verse about the rope looking like a snake).਀ Marcus Aurelius' Meditations: “This advice from Epicurean writings: to think continually਀漀昀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 洀攀渀 漀昀 漀氀搀 眀栀漀 氀椀瘀攀搀 愀 瘀椀爀琀甀漀甀猀 氀椀昀攀ᴀ ਀䘀漀甀爀 挀愀琀攀最漀爀椀攀猀 漀昀 琀攀挀栀渀椀焀甀攀猀㨀